The Basal Layer
(Stratum Basale) is where cell mitosis (renewal) occurs.
New cells are formed by enzymatic activity. These new cells force the already formed cells to move upwards in the Epidermis. As the cells move into the Stratum Corneum or Horny Layer they appear flat and have got rid of their valuable inner content. The last stage in the life of a cell is when it exfoliates on the surface of the skin. This occurs every 3 weeks.
Specialized Epidermal Cells
Melanocyte produces Melanin (brown pigment).
Langerhans cells is the frontline defense of the skins immune system.
Merkel Cells are sensors and transfer important information.